Rainbow Europe Map and Index 2020

ILGA-Europe Rainbow Map and Index 2020 reveals that once-leading countries in Europe are falling behind in their commitments to equality for LGBTI people.

Key findings of the Rainbow Map 2020 include (as of May 2020):

  • There has been no positive change in 49% of countries
  • For the second year in a row, countries are moving backwards on the Rainbow Index, as existing protections are disappearing
  • Trans rights are where most of the current movement in terms of LGBTI equality is happening, for better or worse.
  • Other forward movement, although on a smaller scale, is in the inclusion of equality measures protecting intersex people against discrimination
  • Regression is most visible where civil and political rights are eroded: LGBTI human rights defenders increasingly at risk, authorities taking active measures to undermine civil society associations, and attempts to ban public events.

Executive Summary

Rainbow Europe – ILGA-Europe’s annual benchmarking tool – is comprised of the Rainbow Map and Index and national recommendations. ILGA-Europe have produced the Rainbow Map and Index since 2009, using it to illustrate the legal and policy situation of LGBTI people in Europe.

The Rainbow Map and Index ranks 49 European countries on their respective legal and policy practices for LGBTI people, from 0-100%.

In order to create our country ranking, ILGA-Europe examine the laws and policies in 49 countries using a set of 69 criteria – divided between six thematic categories: equality and non-discrimination; family; hate crime and hate speech; legal gender recognition and bodily integrity; civil society space; and asylum. More information on the list of criteria and their weight on the total score can be found at www.rainbow-europe.org/about 

Rainbow Europe 2020 individual criteria and the percentage ‘weight’ assigned to them remain exactly the same as the 2019 version, meaning that it is easier than ever before to compare a country’s momentum or regression on LGBTI equality laws.

Policymakers, researchers and journalists are able to go ‘behind’ the points and see the original information sources that we base our Map and Index ranking on. This additional layer of information is available through our updated Rainbow Europe web modulewww.rainbow-europe.org

The Rainbow Map and Index presents a picture of what the policy landscape is like right now, while our country-specific recommendations attempt to answer the question “what’s next?” These recommendations for national policymakers are intended to encourage policymakers to address the most pressing legal and policy priorities within the framework of our Rainbow Map and Index. The recommendations were gathered following an online consultation with a wide range of LGBTI organisations in the various countries. As a result, the recommendations are tailored to the needs of activists working on the ground.


TOP 5, Rainbow Europe 2020BOTTOM 5, Rainbow Europe 2020
1. Malta (89%)45. Monaco (11%)
2. Belgium (73%)46. Russia (10%)
3. Luxembourg (73%)47. Armenia (8%)
4. Denmark (68 %)48. Turkey (4%)
5. Norway (68%)49. Azerbaijan (2%)

For the fifth year in a row, Malta continues to occupy the number one spot on the Rainbow Europe Map, with a score of 89%. 

Belgium comes second place for the third time with a score of 73%.

Luxembourg receives the same score as Belgium and occupies the third spot on the ranking for the second year in a row. 

The three countries at the other end of the Rainbow Europe scale are Azerbaijan (2%), Turkey (4%), and Armenia (8%). Turkey’s score has been decreasing since 2015, due to restrictions on freedom of assembly and association. Azerbaijan has also lost points over the past two years due to irregularities on legal gender recognition. 

Hungary is the country with the most dramatic drop in its score, losing 8.46% points in relation to the suspended procedures for legal gender recognition and the lack of proper state protection at public events. Poland has also dropped by 1.9% and is now the lowest EU country on the map. 

Another important deduction happened, with France losing 6.80% points due to the expiration of the government’s action plan. 

MontenegroNorth Macedonia, and the Netherlands were the three countries with the biggest jump in scores. Montenegro announced a comprehensive action plan for the next four years and prohibited discrimination based on sex characteristics. North Macedonia amended its equality and criminal codes, adding sexual orientation and gender identity as protected grounds. In the Netherlands, the Equal Treatment Act was amended with the inclusion of gender identity, gender expression, and sex characteristics grounds. 

Equality action plans have expired in BelgiumFinland, and France, while CroatiaIreland, and Kosovo have shortcomings and implementation problems with their action plans. Serbia and Andorra included sexual orientation and gender identity protection in healthcare legislation. Belgium and the Netherlands were the only countries that recognised ‘sex characteristics’ in their equality laws.

Recognition of family legislation is stagnating across Europe. This year, only Northern Ireland (UK) introduced marriage equality and Monaco recognised the right to cohabitation for same-sex couples (coming into effect on 27 June 2020). Serbia imposed a ban on medically assisted insemination services for people with a history of same-sex relationships.

Court judgements in several countries had groundbreaking effects on the lives of LGBTI people, including Spain’s Constitutional Court’s ruling against the age limit for gender marker change for trans people; Switzerland’s Federal Court decision saying that the Constitution protects ‘gender identity’ under ‘sex/gender’; and Kosovo’s Basic Court decision approving the legal gender recognition of a trans man.

North Macedonia was this year’s only country extending protection from hate crime, amending its Criminal Code to add sexual orientation and gender identity grounds. Switzerland’s referendum approved the inclusion of ‘sexual orientation’ grounds in the Criminal Code. 

The right to self-determination for trans people has been recognised only in Iceland with its new Gender Autonomy Act. Legal gender recognition procedures have become more accessible through trans activists’ efforts in ArmeniaCyprusKosovo, and Montenegro. The implementation of existing procedures has worsened in AzerbaijanGeorgiaSerbiaTurkey, and Northern Ireland (UK).

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