LGBTI equality and human rights in Europe and Central Asia

Non-binary gender registration models in Europe

Report on third gender marker or no gender marker options by Lena Holzer for ILGA-Europe in September 2018.

The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the different legal gender registration models which somehow cause a break in the static registration of gender as binary, and recognize gender identities as considerably more diverse as is understood under the auspices of the two categories, namely women and men. It focuses on the legalistic and bureaucratic aspects of implementing these models in order to provide a clear picture how states can avoid unintended consequences when introducing non-binary gender categories, or, conversely, no longer registering gender for various purposes. The report provides some stance into how non-binary gender registration models affect the human rights, the well-being and social acceptance of non-binary persons. Yet, in order to obtain further conclusive knowledge regarding this topic, more far-reaching qualitative research is necessary.

Since this report serves as a background study for the development of its own policy regarding non-binary gender registration models by ILGA-Europe, it concentrates on possible developments in member states of the Council of Europe (CoE). Nonetheless, it also discusses examples from other regions in order to determine possible best practices and lessons-learned for the European framework.